L’évaluation des compétences
dans une approche intégrée

1ère partie

Illustration Article 1_Petite_Juil2013En éducation et en formation des adultes, tous s’entendent pour dire qu’une bonne formation découle d’une évaluation juste des besoins. «On oublie trop souvent que la formation de base en entreprise ne peut se planifier à l’avance, comme on le fait pour la formation initiale des jeunes, avec un curriculum identique et une préparation standard», rappelle Paul Bélanger (1). Il en est de même dans de nombreux contextes d’apprentissage propres aux adultes.

D’où l’importance d’utiliser des outils d’évaluation des compétences en début de formation afin de situer les apprentissages à réaliser, puis en cours de formation afin d’évaluer le progrès de l’acquisition de compétences et de rajuster les activités d’apprentissage, au besoin. Un bon outil permettra également d’arrimer les besoins des apprenants aux facteurs liés au milieu du travail ou à un autre milieu.

Plusieurs approches et outils sont utilisés dans l’évaluation des compétences. Très souvent, les formateurs développent leurs propres outils. Il faut préciser que l’on parle ici d’évaluer des compétences et non des acquis scolaires. Dans ce cas, on peut avoir recours à des outils comme TOWES ou CAMERA de l’organisme Pathways To Possibilities. D’autres, moins approfondis, ont été élaborés par Ressources humaines et Développement des compétences du Canada (2).

Illustration Article 1 bis_Petite_Juil2013 Le Test of Workplace Essential Skills (TOWES) a été développé en 1998, grâce à une collaboration entre SkillPlan et le Bow Valley College. Il répondait au besoin des formateurs en milieu de travail de disposer d’un test sur les compétences essentielles pouvant procurer des résultats semblables à ceux de l’Enquête internationale sur l’alphabétisation des adultes (EIAA). Le TOWES mesure trois des compétences essentielles pour assurer la sécurité et la productivité au travail : la lecture, l’utilisation de documents et le calcul. Ce sont surtout les collèges communautaires du Canada qui en assurent la diffusion dans le cadre de leurs services aux entreprises.

ptp_logo_RGBEn 2012, le RESDAC a annoncé qu’il avait obtenu du financement pour la réalisation d’un projet qui consiste à traduire, puis à adapter le système d’évaluation CAMERA. Ce système a été conçu par l’organisation Pathways To Possibilities (PTP) Adult Learning and Employment Programs de Toronto. CAMERA (Communications and Math Employment Readiness Assessment) situe le niveau de préparation d’un adulte par rapport à un emploi en évaluant ses compétences de communication (utilisation de documents, lecture et rédaction) et de calcul. Le RESDAC terminera son projet en mars 2014 et il coordonne présentement la phase de validation de la version préliminaire de l’adaptation en français.

Lors d’une entrevue téléphonique, Johanne Laurent, du RESDAC, indiquait que le système d’évaluation CAMERA vise surtout les apprenants adultes des programmes d’alphabétisation, de développement de compétences et de rattrapage scolaire qui ont comme but ultime de travailler. Le système CAMERA peut également être utilisé pour la formation en milieu de travail. Avec CAMERA, on peut évaluer l’acquisition et l’amélioration de quatre compétences essentielles. Ce faisant, les formateurs ont un outil qui laisse plus de place à leur jugement pour assurer la planification et le suivi des apprentissages.

Julie Campeau

1 – http://www.cirdep.uqam.ca/component/content/article/10/49.html
2 – http://www.rhdcc.gc.ca/fra/emplois/ace/outils/index.shtml

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